Turquoise is a copper aluminum phosphate, secondary mineral. It is found in Iran, Afghanistan, Australia, Tibet, Peru, and the SW USA. It forms as a result of pre-existing minerals (apatite, feldspar, malachite) weathering and oxidizing over long periods of time. Turquoise is often recovered as a by-product of large-scale copper mining. The spidery veining visible in some specimens is a mineral called limonite, a type of iron.

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